Your profession as in Instructor is anoble one. It has the integrity, self respect, dignity and patriotic outlook, which still enshrines with a touch of honesty and lone up of personal qualities. You should feel proud of you that you have opportunity to help nations cause and prosperity.

            Somewhere out Late Prime Minister, Panduit Nehru had expressed that “Freedom for the people is freedom from want and unemployment”.   To raise standard of life improve standard of production, and make the country industrially self supporting.

            We want good Technicians. To achieve this, expert and trained technicians are essential to train technical personal. Hence you as an instructor, must be good in your trade, i.e., you must be thoroughly competent both in Theory and Practical. You must have a never continuous enthusiasm and thirst to learn more and more knowledge and to know modern techniques and to keep pace with the fast developing industrial and technical advancement. “QUENCH NOT YOUR THIRST WITH A LITTLE ATTEMPI”. Please realize that knowledge satisfied you as a student is not sufficient as a teacher. A highly skilled man may be a complicated job but may not be able to explain.

            One must learn the art of teaching to become a good Instructor.


(Based on an old D.G.R. & E. Directive)

            It is not given for everyone to be a good Instructor. But if the following points are developed any one with experience can carry out instructional duties.




            4.Example and


            Besides the above, the following points also will contribute a good deal in promoting a character Instructor.


            2.Thorough knowledge

            3.Enthusiasm for the subject

            4.Self confidence

            5.Power of logical arrangement of what he wishes to teach.

  1. Sympathetic understanding of the difficulties of students.

ABILITY:- In the first instance one should be knowledgeable in the subject   in             which he wishes to impart instruction. In this connection it may be said that an ounce of practice is worth many pounds of theory. It is one thing to know how work should be done but quite another to be able to do one self.

The first essential feature of a good instructor is intimate knowledge of the job in which he gives instruction.

PATIENCE:- He must possess more than a fat share of his patience to arrive at a good stage of proficiency as an instructor. It requires many years of concentrated effort. You know well, the recruits. We and dealing with who are entirely new to the work and for a time at least we cannot accept them to understand, let alone to bane able to carry outwork according to our instructions. Then this is where patience is required and necessary. It will be found later that a pestilent and sympathetic understanding of the difficulties of the trainees will amply regard later.

FIRMNESS:- This must be tempered with kindness. There are always many ways in which jobs of work can be carried out. However there is only one best and correct way. This correct waillist the only one which can be expected from the minds of the youths trainees; it entertains firmness on the part of the Instructor. Therefore always very definite instructions should be given and the instructor should see that his instructions are carried out.

EXAMPLE:- Detail must be the slogan of every Instructor in all they try to do and attend and teach. The expression Good Enough or nearenough should be forgotten. Work must be carried out detail by detail line the best possible manner. Any work worth doing must be consciously carried out.

2nd group of qualities:-

System and forethought

An Instructor is largely the result of possessing 2 & 3 and also 4. Almost all

Are naturally shy. Anyone to overcome shyness needs mental effort.

Genuine self-confidence comes from 2 and 3 and practice. No.5 entails careful advance of preparation by the instructor. Therefore, there must be a clear object in the instructor’s mind for every lesson. Hence lesson plans are to be carefully prepared and kept well in advance. To train without wastes time.


            Discipline starts at home. IT develops from the very childhood. Discipline means Regularity – Cultivation of orderliness. Attention towards,

  1. Cleanliness


3.Observance of safety precautions, and

4.Care and Maintenance of tools is as important as that towards Technical

Skill.Attitude of the worker is famed in the workshop. Therefore ideal   conditions must be set up in your shop. Instructor must be all a lot. Instructor should emphasis by example, precept and practice-what is taught and followed should be one and the same. Do not tell a trainee anythingwhichyou cannot do or do not like to do or difficult or dangerous to aryl one. Discipline is of two kinds

  1. Personal and

2.Official so to be disciplined personally, encourage the students to be neat and tidy and to properly look after their personal that some trainees even do not wash and clean teeth, do not take bath even for number of days. Such trainees, while they do not have a sound mind and good health, they may be a source of unpleasantness being unhygienic. So take interest and advise them. Instructor should be a friend, philosopher and guide.  Insist on being punctual to attend the Institute in time and to submit their work or records punctually by the prescribed and desired time. This is most essential – Insist on attending dressed in workshop clothing. Should respect any order of the authority or superior under which you are working Learn to obey and then you can command. Never allow a trainee to attend work in loose garments. Any report or representation should be submitted through proper casual.

            Report about absentees:-

            Do not allow anyone to wander or waste his time. Do not show to a trainee that you are unprepared and you have no work to give. Plan their work ahead. Keep everything required on hand. Start work immediately they attend.

            Every thing must be done according to plan.

1.Usually warning bell is given before 10 minutes, of the long  bell, get cleaned all tools and work benches. Tae back tools.

2.Report any broken tool, of any shortage,

3.Store all materials in one place and

4.Arrange to collect the scrap pieces and keep them in a separate bin-but never allow them on the ground.

OBSERVANCE OF SAFETY PRECAUTIONS:- Most important of all is please exhibit safety precautions chart in a conspicuous place. Observance of safety precautions forms one of the vital factors that shape discipline.

CARE AND MAINTENANCE OF TOOLS:-Please make it a point to check up all tools and maintain them properly by attending to them then and there. Other-Wise it may resultlint an injury to a person or operator, or damage the tool itself.



            It is very difficult to become a good instructor, while it is a fact that every one cannot be a successful Instructor, but certainly good results can be obtained if sincerely attempted.

            An Instructor should try to create wholesome atmosphere in the Class  with his sympathy, patience, keenness and personality.

            Everything what we do reflects on our personality.

            Personality means how we influence or react on other person. A strong personality means and indicates how best one can impress on others. When another one thinks that we have behaved or behave properly, then we have a good personality. Everyone should have some ideas and ambitions and live up to them. This improves the character.

            Character and personality are both essential to a teacher of course they can be improved. One should try and become truthfully, unselfish, honest and reliable. Aims and determinations are to be improved.

            A teacher should take care of his gestures, postures, dress, appearance and

Facial expression.Each one of these effect a student.

            A teacher should know something about working of the mind of his students as individuals of class. This helps them to control them. He should keep them under proper discipline.           

Class control is the test of an instructor’s PERSONALITY.

            Your position in the class is one amounting to that of a leader, because of your superior knowledge, large experience, age etc: THEREFORE YOU SHOULD MAINTAIN YOUR POSITION. Be systematic in whatever you do. Always be just and fair to the students PRACTICE AS ABOVE AND TRY TO IMPROVE YOUR PERSONALITY AND CHARACTER.


            Please realize that it is a colossal waste of time and energy to take up a Theory class without proper preparation. Plan your lesson properly and well in advance. Try to teach by demonstration methods, largely and generally. Make it interesting, practical, useful and worthwhile. Have always a properly prepared lesson plan (Demonstration or class room) before you. Please keep in view the following points:-


  1. What exactly you are going to beach.
  2. How much you are going to teach in allotted time.
  3. Inwhich order you are going to teach different steps of the lesson.
  4. What you are going to do, say or show.
  5. What questions you will ask and when.
  6. And that all the tools, materials, boards, books, charts, models and

               Diagrams etc. are ready at hand.

            Treat every step of your lesson gradually.

It is not a good practice to begin the lesson as in the last class we have studied about…………….and   now we deal with…………………………..Introduce the lesson in a lively manner, by asking questions, revising previouslessons or give a brief overlap of the previous lesson over to the new lesson which you think will act as link with the past one and the present one. Maintain continuity.

            Let the delivery of the lesson be continuous and narrative question now and then spreading them all over the class and these encourage their reception of lessons. Your voice must be moderate – should not be either harsh or shriek – should be heard by everyone.

            Make as deep and clear impression as possible.

            Tell and explain the same in many ways. Convey the meaning very clearly.

Give as many examples as possible while teaching. Repeat or revise. But at intervals.

Always insist on correctness. Secure correct answers. Practice make perfect. Teach the practical with high order of precision correctness and perfectness.

Use – Blackboards judiciously – Use two boards – one for summary and the other for working up.

Use cooler pieces of chalk wherever necessary and with proper Justification.

Use charts which are legible, clear, attractive and correct lettering should be neat and bold. Revise your lesson plan now and then:

  1. To check up time whether to be modified on experience.
  2. To check up methods of teaching which may need different approach?
  3. And to provide additional information any that may be available.


  1. Teach one thing at a time.
  2. Help the trainee to teach himself.
  3. Create need for learning.
  4. Teach from known to unknown. Simple to complex.Easy to difficult.

            Definite to indefinite, etc.,

  1. Stick on the essentials and concentrate. All subject matter is not equally important.
  2. Experience will tell how much can be taught in a given time.








3.Establish NEED:

4.Provide MOTIVE:


5.State ATM:

Designed to prepare mind of students and make him READY to learn

Instructor must create (Captivate)

Interest of student

Whatever method is used must be relevant to lesson.

When person can see why a thing is needed he is half way to understanding it why does it exist?

This is essential otherwise no learning.


Must give title of lesson or subject of lesson and specify how much is to be learned about subject. State the objectives. Remembers I Really Need Motivation Always.




What is it? = Subject of lesson(Title)

What is it for? = 1.Purpose.

On What principle does it work?=2.Principale.

How is it made?=3. Construction.

                                     (Usually taught together)

How does it work?=4.Opertion (together)

How do I keep it in Working order? =5.Maintanance

RECAPITULATION(RECAP) Forgetting is greatest just after information given.   Make class remember main facts & points of lesson. Keep to same lesson sequence.

Do not give any new information.


Student may remember facts of lesson but not know how to apply them – this we must find out – set problem to make him use the new knowledge of the lesson.




Give class opportunity of asking questions to inon out any doubts. Keep to lesson. Advise on next topic




Types of lesson plans:-

  1. Lesson plan for informative talk.
  2. Lesson plan for demonstration or teaching a skill.
  3. Lesson plan for Theory –cum-demonstration.
  4. Lesson plan for a film lesson.

Advantages of the lesson plan:

A lesson plan—-

  1. a) Helps in giving the study
  2. b) Helps logical presentation step by step
  3. c) Helps to ascertain whether all tools, charts and other aids are there, and
  4. d) Helps to install confidence in the Instructor and his subject.


  1. Preparation
  2. A) Preparation for the teacher
  3. B) Preparation for the student:
  4. Presentation
  5. Application
  6. Recapitulation or summarizing:
  7. Testing.


            The lesson selected should fit into the frame of sequence of subject.

            The lesson shall coincide and corroborate the practical. Practical exercise that had been done or is going to be taken up. Afterwards suitable title should be given. It is necessary to be definite about our aim in teaching the lesson without an aim there is every possibility of going astray, from the subject for example-when it is desired to give a lesson, on the topic of generator, it should be well stated whether in that particular class either a principal, types constructional details, characteristics or uses is are going to be taught. All about generators cannot be given in one class.

Subject matter: Refer instructions on theoretical lesson.


            While presenting or developing the lesson should bear in mind the following:

  1. We will learn by doing
  2. Teach one thing at a time
  3. Help the learner to teach himself:
  4. Create need for learning:
  5. Teach the new / team of the old in
  6. Teach easy to difficult simple to complex, general to particular.



            Knowledge is only knowledge when it is used. In this step generally questions are asked. To know, how for the subject matter taught is understood and can be applied. Questions of factual type are to be asked. This helps memory. The Instructor may help in answering.


This means going over ground already covered t ensure more complete understanding. Recapitulation may be used at the end of a lesson or lessons to satisfy that what has been taught has properly been understood.

  1. And to once again bring to light the main points of the lesson and for a general

Revision. The teacher shall complete this step along with the class i.e., with active participation of his class. He has to frame suitable questions and obtain answers.



            Test questioning must be based on finding out” can the boys’ use their knowledge without any help from the Instructor Questions should be such as to call for a little thought on the part of the students in other words the questions framed shall be thought provoking.

            Instructor shall not help in answering.


            He should not act as a ready reference. He must guide and help the trainees to obtain an answer by themselves”.



(getting ready)

To Prepare the learner for new facts and to establish a teaching base. 1. Point out new for self-     improvement.

2. Get attention and interest.

3. Plan and organize the           lesson.

4. Ask question to know how much instruction is needed.


(Telling & showing)

To present new ideas of facts.   Show new manipulation in proper order. 1.Lecture or explanation

2. Diagram or an illustration.

3. Demonstration show how?


5. Combination of the above.

Trial To start the learner in applying the information or necessary action under the observation of the Instructor. 1.Ask the learner to proceed under close observation.

2.Discuss and find out

3. Ask to make a sketch an explain the methods.

Application(During) To test the learners skill and knowledge This is the pupils step. He must work without the assistance of the instructor.
Testing(Checking up) To test the learners skill and knowledge Instructor checks up on the work done and finds out how much he had learned.


DEFINATION OF SKILL: – Skill is the formation of habit to do a work in the economical way.

INGREDIENTS OF SKILL:-1.Accuracy (according to purpose)

  1. Speed
  2. Workmanship (Quality & finish)

ACQUIRING OF SKILL: Skill is acquired by


  1. Repetition
  2. Participation


  1. Manipulative proficiency.
  2. Preparation
  3. Method of presentation
  4. Getting it done by learners
  5. And erecting.


            Have a correct, really helpful. And logically prepared lesson plan before you while you intend to demonstrate.


TRADE                                                                                                                                   TIME




Operation Steps Information Paints Questions.

In demonstration, tell show and ask.


  1. Be sure learner can see every part of the demonstration from the performing point of view.
  2. Give a quick preliminary demonstration and an idea of the job.
  3. Repeater the demonstration slowly.
  4. Break the operation into small units of instruction made up of not more than four of five operative points.
  5. Use very simple language in explaining the job.
  6. Use special Trade Terms only after the demonstration.
  7. Emphasize the importance of repetition in developing a skill.
  8. Always stress the safe way of doing job.
  9. Do not emphasize how not to do a job.
  10. Please remember that operation and job instruction sheets.
  11. Help to teach step by step
  12. Help trainee done a job with the minimum guidance.
  13. And they promote a desirable habit to do a thing carefully by following these instructions precisely given.

OPERATION SHEET: Is that which gives specific instruction with regard to the development of

            Basic skill.

JOB SHEET: – Is that which gives instructions regarding a job involving certain skills:-


            To teach plain drilling a flat work. All holes of the same size. Materials and equipment:- The flat work for holes drill press, drill.

Operation steps:                                 Information points:                            Questions:

  1. Center ; punch the Centre Check the layout, centre punch        Why is a centre

                                                            all the holes to start the drill              punch necessary

  1. Clamp work on the table in Safety precautions sleeves, ties, whatis the safety

The parallel vice.                                Rings, loose hair, clamp-work           precautions to be

                                                            Security.                                              Observed before

                                                                                                                        operating a machine

                                                                                                                        in which a cutting

                                                                                                                        tool revolves ?

                                                                                                                        Why is it necessary?

  1. Insert drill and tighten: Check drill size                                               What will happen if a

wrong size drill is used ?

  1. Set speed and feed. Drill speed 48/D=RPM Why do you give a

                                                                                                                        Certain feed and a

                                                                                                                        Cores pending speed?

  1. Unlock table and bring it Do this carefully

Approximately to the position

Of one Centre.

  1. Start machine
  2. Advance drill by hand. Take Depth of cut. Why is a trial cut?

A trial cut.                                                                                                      Necessary?

7.Pulk over table correctly                 Recent Punch                         What will you do if

If required.                                                                                                      the trial hole is in the                                                                                                                                     wrong place.

9.Lock table and change feed.           Lubrication and cooling.                   Why do you insert oil

                                                                                                                        Into the hole?

10.Drill through:                                Do not drill into table.

11.Repeat for other holes.

In demonstrating the lesson tells, show and ask questions.

Received from Sri P.S.Sarma



Teaching how to ship to line.

Material and equipment:-

Bench vice, Chipping screen , ball pane, hand hammer flat cold chisel 3/4’’ , small blocks of wood , M.S.Flat 2 ½’’ with four lines scribed 1/16’’ apart on one of the surfaces and made clearer by pop marks at intervals of not more ¼’’ on each line , 10’’ flat bastard file.

Operation:                              Information Points :                           Questions :     

  1. Hold the mild steel flat Chamfering the corner.                    

In vice with on one of

The marked corners

Projecting about an

Inch abovethe jaws.              

  1. File the corner to an More convenient for                          What is the purpose

Angle of about 450                chipping                                             of this filing?

To the last scribed line.

  1. (a) Repeat at the other


  1. Take out the plate and grip Packing, tightening vice                    Why is packing

It again on the side                by hand, chamfered surface              necessary?

Lengthwise.                            Above vice, the plate                         What happens

                                                Veridical screen in front.                   If there is no screen?

  1. Hold the hammer by the Condition of hammer and                 How is the shaft

Right hand and the she’s       chisel. Proper held on both.              Fitted on the hammer

By the left.                                                                                          Head? Should be


  1. Position yourself inform about 18” to 20”from           

Of the vice at convenient      the vice.


  1. Place the cutting edge of the Position of chisel 35 – 400 what happens if the

Chisel on the chamfered                                                                    chisel is hold in any

Portion on a line with the                                                                  other position?

First scribed line.

OPERATION:                       INFORMATION POINTS:                QUESTIONS;

  1. Swing the hammer Few idle swings will                          What is the weight of

Above the shoulder               help to get in the line.                                    The hammer.

Feely and bring

It down on the chisel.

  1. Lift the hammer back

And continue the strokes.

  1. Lift the hammer back and The hammer will reflect back                        When do you

Continue the strokes.             Follow up. Watch cutting                  increase the angle

                                                Edge. Increase or decrease               Why?

                                                The angle as necessary.


  1. Proceed steadily till Oil cutting edge frequently,               Why is oiling

One layer is removed                         get the chisel reground if                   necessary?

And repeat chipping to         necessary.

The last line.

                                                                        Received from Sri.P.S.Sarma



Holding work in a four jaw chuck in lathe:

Equipment and Materials Required.


  1. Four jaw chuck with handle.
  2. Mild steel round piece turned to about 2” dia.

               And 4” long.

            4.Chuck cradle.

  1. A chalk piece.


  1. See that the threads of the spindle nose and inside the chuck are cleaned. If not clean with a rag and appointed piece of thin rod.
  2. Oil the threads of the spindle nose as well as inside the chuck.
  3. Place the chuck cradle on the ways of the lathe bed just under the nose of the spindle.
  4. Put the chuck on the cradle and rotate the spindle allowing the chuck to be screwed on to the spindle carefully and allow it to come up to the spindle shoulder.
  5. Tack the help of the concentric grooves turned in the face of the chuck and foot rule, to bring all the jaws by rotating the handle clock wise so that they are about the same distance from the centre of the chuck and at the same time will allow the mild steel piece just to strip in to the jaws.
  6. Slip the mild steel piece into the jaws and tighten all the four jaws one by one.
  7. Bring the chalk against the mild steel piece tightly near the chuck and after that at the farther and the spindle by hand. If the chalk mark is all aground the piece at both the pieces, it is hold true in the chuck, If the job is not hold truce and the chalk will mark the high sport which would to the side of the round piece farthest from the centre of rotation.
  8. Loosen the jaw on the opposite side of the high spot and tighten the jaw on the high side. Repeat this till the chalk line is all round the M.S.Piece.
  9. See that all the jaws are tightened before starting to OUT.

Received from Sri.P.S.Sarma.





  1. Bench vice.
  2. S. Plate 2” X 1”
  3. Plat file rough 10” long.
  4. Straight edge or try square.
  5. File card.


1.See that the vice is clean.If not clean it.

  1. Grip job in vice leaving about ¼” above the jaws.
  2. Hold file handle in right hand, thumb on top, and index finger on the side.
  3. Place palm of left hand on the toe of the file.
  4. Stand with left foot forwards.
  5. Place file straight on the job and give strokes moging the file forward and towards the right. At the beginning of the stroke, exert more pressure with the left hand. As the stroke proceeds gradually the pressure by the left hand is reduced and you press more with right hand. The object is to keep the file always horizontal.
  6. Merely drag the file without pressure on the return stroke. The file cuts only on the forward stroke. It will get blunt if pressure is exerted on the return stroke.
  7. Give 40 to 50 strokes per minute using the maximum length of the file.
  8. Check flatness of filed surface occasionally with straight edge.
  9. File till the surface is flat.
  10. Remove and clean job, file and vice.


  1. Do not use the file without handle.
  2. Do not use file for hammering.
  3. Your fingers of the right hand should not project beyond the handle.
  4. When fixing the job, do not use a lever or a hammer on the handle of vice.Tightening by hand along is enough.
  5. Do not cut the vice with the file.
  6. Do not thro file on any hard substance?
  7. While filing take care that the file is horizontal, otherwise the surf act will be curved.
  8. Do not use oil while filing, otherwise the file will slip and not cut.


Title:                Rewinding of armatures.

Aim:-               Hand winding.

Tools &

Equipment      1. Winding stand & Spool with wire

  1. A given Armature
  2. Slot wand
  3. A small rectangular fiber: piece.
  4. Leathered/press pun paper
  5. Wedges.
  6. Test lamp & a testing Board.
  7. Sleevings of proper size.

Operations:     1. Cleaning and insulating the core.


  1. Wedging and
  2. Testing the winding.

Procedure:                  1. Remove sharp burs or fins on the laminate with a file

For winding                2. Slip two large fiber washers over the shaft and press up against each

An armature                 side of the core.

Ode 12 slots 12           (Thickness of washers 1/32” or 1/16” punch and die the fiber washers exactly as that of the armature lamination)

               3.Insulate the shaft between the core and the commentator with

  1. Insulate the shaft armature slots with leatherwood or press-pane paper.

                  (a) Cut the paper exactly to the width of slot, but length being 1/8” extra

                                    On either side.

                                    (b) The paper should not project more than1/8than the depth of slots

                                         Not to interfere while winding.

  1. Faster the end of wire from the spool around the shat beyond   commuter.
  2. Unroll the wire from the spool pass through slot 1, to the back end of the armature, across to slot, 6, there to the front end across slot-1.
  3. Repeat the same process and put the required. No. of turns (20)
  4. After putting required No. of turns loop back the wire about 2 to 3 inches beyond the accumulator and give 3 or 4 half turn twists to hold the wires close together.
  5. Slip over the sleeving on the wires (The sleeving should extend to the end of slots)
  6. Wind the next five coils wound will be located in the bottom of the sleets).
  7. Insert a strip of insulation above the wires, in order to separate the Top and Bottom coils (Cut a strip twice the width of the slot, bend in u shape and slip in the slot)
  8. Wind the rest of the coils.
  9. Join the end of the lead from the first coil and the lead fastened around the shaft and give several half burn twists to hold them close together.
  10. Slip over the sieving.

Testing before connecting to commute ton

  1. Then test the winding as follows:-

(a) Test with a test lamp for continuity.

(b) Test for any grounds: If the lamp burns dim when connected with the coil and core in series, it shows the coil is touching the core.

                                         If this is the condition.

Cut the loop on the end of the leads from the

Coil and test between each coil and core.

  1. If the winding is free from gourds:,

Trim the slot insulation and gold over the wires in the slots.

  1. Drive a slot wedge or a fiber strip/strap in between the insulation and tips of the slots.
  2. Present it to the Instructor.


                         OPERATION SHEET

AIM: To Prepare a’T’ Joint.

Materials required: 7/16 V.I.R. – 18 “piece.

Tools required: Electricians knife, sand paper (smooth)

                        Cutting nippers, Box-Wood rule.



  1. Cut the given piece into two lengths of 9” each.
  2. Take one piece and peel off insulation in the middle leaving for a length of 3” leaving 3” on either side.
  • Mark the measurements with the box wood rule.
  • To remove insulation, grasp the wire between the side of your thumb and the Blade

Of electrician knife, and while holding the wire with the other hand, take a splice off the position.

(C) Always cut towards the end of the wire as you do when sharpening a pencil and be         sure not to nick the wire with knife.

(D) Take care not to cut the wires.

  1. Unstring (untwist) the piece, and clean well the strands and in between with smooth

Grade of sand paper. Remove kinks. Take care not to remove tin coating while cleaning.

4.Take the other piece, and peel off the insulation for a length of 6 “ fromibeebd (As per instructions 2(a) & (b)

  1. Untwist and clean well the strands, with sand paper. Remove KINKS and straighten the strands.
  2. Lay the strands as usual and get the original twist up to 2”
  3. Now divide the seven wires into two parts 4 on one side and 3 on the other side.

8.Now keep the first piece in your Right hand.

  1. Insert the same in between the two parts of the 2nd piece, kept in left hand.
  2. Now closely wind the strands, one by one (as demonstrated)
  3. End the winding at least ¼ off from the ends of the piece.
  4. Cut the ends in a semicircular way on either side.


  1. Avoid knife cuts on the wires while peeling off insulation.
  2. Do not remove the tin coating while cleaning the strands with sand paper.
  3. Carry the winding with a good grip. Otherwise solder will get in gaps of the winding. Sharp ends of the same may injure the insulation put on it.




Tools & Equipment:

  1. Soldering iron (ordinary)
  2. Hand forge.
  3. Pan for melting solder, ladle s stove.

Materials:- coal, cotton waste, match box , white rage, thick cloth (a large piece) solder (60:40)

            Rosined powder and joints to solder.


            The joints can be soldered by any one of the following methods. It is better to practice all methods.

  1. Soldering by Iron.
  2. Soldering by Pouring
  3. Soldering by dipping.


  1. Keep the forge clear and fill up with charcoal.
  2. Check the hand blower fitted to for proper condition
  3. Light up the forge with the help of cotton waste and match box.
  4. Melt a little solder in the pan heating on the forge.
  5. Clean the iron and tin the copper bit.
  6. Now get down the pan from forge and introduce the soldering iron in it.
  7. Heat the iron in the forge until it reaches the correct temperature.
  8. Do not try to solder any joint with a iron so cool, that it can melt only solder slowly, nor with one so hot, that it will give dense clouds of smoke, when rosins is appointed to it.
  9. Remove the iron form forge, and hold it on properly support it on a brick or block of other material, which does not melt.
  10. Wipe the joint with a rag.
  11. Sprinkle Rosin powder on the joint.
  12. Apply solder to the iron, until a pool remains on the flat surface, or in the groove, if grooved bit is used.
  13. Rub the joint with the soldering bit –fill up every crevice with solder.
  14. Again heat the iron bit if cool.
  15. Take outbit form forge, and remove allsharp points, of solder, as they may damage the insulation put over it.
  16. Do not wipe the joint, before the solder cools down as it destroys the appearance, and is liable to produce roughness. Detrimental to the insulation to be applied.


  1. Carry on the soldering process as quickly a possible.


Please not the tendency to burn the insulation is less with a hot soldering irons that with a cold one.

Safety Precautions:-

  1. Be careful with fire.
  2. Do not allow hot solder to fall on your feet or hands.
  3. Do not heat the iron too much.
  4. Do things calmly and not with haste.


  1. Heat the solder in la pan and melt it properly.
  2. Place the cleared joint in the groove formed in a brick.
  3. Take out solder into the ladle.
  4. Pour the hot solder on the joints throughout the lengths uniformly.
  5. Take the thick cotton rag into your hand.
  6. By the help of a tong or so, grip the joint and place it on the cloth in your hand.
  7. Wipe off solder and put scantly.
  8. A well soldered joint presents a bright smooth surface and appearance like polished silver.

Safety Precautions:-

            Be careful in handling hot solder.










ACCURACY:                                                                                                                         Marks

  • Test the flatness of the two faces and edges with a straight edge (4 tests)                   8
  • Test the squaraness of the adjacent edges across their middle (make four tests)       4

Deduct 1 mark for each test of the surfaces is out of truth beyond. 003” or out

Of square with a gauge Deduct 1 mark for each.002” error beyond. 003.

Permissable as shown by the peeler gauge.                                                                   4

  1. Measure the sides of the square at the middle Deduct1 mark for each dement ion which is002.” Over +’- 008” the specified size.    4
  2. To test the squatness’, measure the distances across the two corners. They

should not very .004” difference beyond+,- 008.                                                          4

  1. Measure the distances across the square hole of the middle of the sizes. Also test   4

The parallelism of the sides. These measurements should not differ more than.005. Deduct 1 mark for each. 002.” Variation beyond. 005”                                                ——–

                                                                                                             Total                24

Examine if the Drilled Holes are central with the circles. Check dimensions.

Deduct 1mark for each variation from the .016”

Test the holes for being square with the face with plug of suitable size.

Test this squareness in two positions at 90 with a square and deduct 1 mark if not upright.

Test this tapped holes by inserting screwed plugs (Plug tapes may be used instead)


The plug should screw with hand without appreciable shake.

The plug should be square to the face as tested by try square. Deduct 1 mark for a slack tap, slack and very slack must be left to the discretion of the Instructor.

Deduct 1 mark if out square in either direction.


            The lengths screwed. Deduct 1 mark for variation of 1/16, “or more.   The fit of the tread in the tapped.


            Whole, deduct one mark if either end is too slack or too tight.


TEST: THE MARKING OFF – Accuracy, Finesse

            Location of punch mark’s approximately equally spaced and central on the lines and at their intersection. Give the size of the drill to be used for tapping a ½” hole.

Uses of inside calipers:

            Set the calipers to 1-9/16, measure the diameter of a given hole with calipers and foot rule. Set the inside calipers to 1” diameter hole set the outside calipers to the inside calipers already set. Determine by means of calipersonly which of the three rods of 1”,1”+.003” is the longest and which the shortest.

Note the method of using the calipers in setting them and in measuring against a foot rule. Order lines of bench and work.

FINISH TIME. Deduct or add one mark for each 15 minutes over or below the allotted time of 12 hours.


Marking a nut:

  • Saw off with ahacksaw a 5/0” long hexagonal piece.
  • Mark off and file it down to ½’ thickness.
  • File the chamfer at one end.
  • Drill1/2” size tapping hole in the centre refer to the table.
  • Tap as explained below.
  • Get the ½” size set off B.S.W. taps (Taper 2nd taper and plug)
  • Start with the taper tap. Insert the tap in the hold, it perpendicular to the face. Using a double ended wrench rotate the tap forwards nearly half a turn take it back words nearly the same distance.

The top should be worked this way forward and backward nearly half a turn each time.

While tapping use plenty of oil as a lubricant. Take care.

  • That the pressure on the double ended wrench is equal on either side of the tap.
  • The tap is kept square to the surface while tapping.
  • That the tap does not bind if there is slight bending screw the tap right out of the hole. Clear the chips from hole and the tap and straight again.
  • Use the 2nd taper tap and finally the plug tap to get the all threaded to size.
  • While tapping, test frequently with a try square to ensure that the hole is tapped square if necessary adjust by hearing a little more heavily on the side towards which the tap is to be moved in order to make it square.
  • Remember that taps are delicate and expensive tools, they must therefore, be used carefully,


I AIM- To teach the elements of Ferrous Metals – Cast Iron


  • Materials – Fractured piecesof– Pig iron,C.I.M.S.Steel, Copper, Tin,Brass,Aluminum this bars of C.I.,M.S., Copper.
  • Tools: Vice, Hammer and flat chisel.
  • Visual-aid charts – The Drawing of a Cupola.



Introductory 1. (a)Stone age.

(b)Iron age.

(c)Importance of Iron in life the modern age.

Ferrous metals. 2.(a)Metals containing large proportion of iron.

   (b)Examples – C.I., M.S., steel.


   (C)Show sample materials.

Non-Ferrous Materials: 3.(a)Metals or mixtures of metals which do not contain   iron.

   (b)Example – Copper, tin, brass, aluminum

   (c) Show sample materials.

Ferrous and non ferrous groups of metals Compare and summaries 2 and 3.
Questions. 5.(a) To what group of metals the door bolts, hinges of the class room belong?

   (b) Name some articles which belong to the non-ferrous groups.

     (C ) Can you say where iron is produced in India?

Pig Iron 6.(a) Iron are – as found in nature.

   (b) Extraction of iron – heating iron are with coal or charcoals. Separation of impurities. Draining of liquid iron into small pigs. Hence the name.

Verities of pig Iron 7. (a) There are many verities the most important are grey and white.

   (b) Grey – Fractured surface   is of whitish grey color.

(c) White – fractured surface is of whitish grey colour

(d) White harder than greyboth suitable for casting.

Questions 8.(a)How iron is found in nature.

   (b)What is done to extract Iron from Ore?


Cast iron 9.(a) Cupola.

   (b) Use visual aid chart.

   (c ) Melting of pig   or C.I. With layers of coke and blast of air(melting temperature 1500 C appromimaterial) collecting the molten material and poring into moulds.

C.I.Varieties 10.(a) Grey same as pig Iron.

     (b) White

     © Mottled – fractured surface shows patches of grey and white

C.I.Preporities: 11. (a) Can be melted with simple equipment

     (b) Can be cast.

     (c ) Can be machined and welded.

   (d)Cannot be forged.

     (e) Strong in compression.

     (f)Demonstrate-(i) Chipping C.I.Chips


                                   (ii) Bending C.I.Rod-Rod


                                   (iii) Ben.M.S. and Copper

Rods-do not break.

C.I.Composition 12.(a) Carbon content – 2 to 5%

     (b)The difference in the structure seen from the fracture depends upon how the carbon is mixed with iron-graphite and combined.

Questions 13.(a) Give examples of C.I.articles?

     (b) What are the properties of cast iron (ask the students one each)?

     (c )How casting is done?


Summary 14. (a) C.I. Belongs to the ferrous group.

       (b) melted and obtained by pouring

             Into moulds.

       (c ) After casting, the article

       (d )It cannot be forged.


The next lesson will be on the uses of C.I.


            Teaching is not completed with talking, describing explaining demonstration etc., done by the teacher – learning is an active process. It is not an operation that a teacher does on the brains of the students or trainees – But it isthat done by the trainees them – selves.

            A teacher should encourage or stimulate this activity.

            The most important way is by asking questions.

            Right questioning is the physiological basis for all learning.

            Good questioning requires skill.

Types of questions:-

  1. Preliminary questions: To test previous knowledge, help to connect new lesson with old lesson.
  2. Finding difficulties met by studying.
  3. Developing questions used to encourage thinking about problems.
  4. Testing questions:- How far the trainess have understood and also to summarise and revise lessons.


  1. Each question should deal with one idea.
  2. Questions should be clear, concise and definite.
  3. Questions should not be repeated, rephrased or changed.
  4. Ask questions in order – Don’t jump from subject to subject.
  5. Ask questions of the class as a whole.
  6. Give time for thinking before asking for the answer.
  7. Ask one question at a time.
  8. Don’t permit group answering, or answers in chorus or to answer out of turn.
  9. Don’t name a trainee before putting a question to the whole class.
  10. Train students to make their answers clear, full and to the point.


The correctness of answers should be recognized simply and with variations, ‘YES’ ‘CORRECT’ ‘THANK YOU’ etc., It is ordinary politeness and encourages students.















1.Set questions to find out how many the students know of the subject matter.

2.Set some questions to see if they can think and make use of their knowledge in solving a problem.

  1. Questions should be clear, simple and within the scope of the syllabus.
  2. Always provide a choice of questions – about six or seven out of nine or so.
  3. Ask the questions about essential points.
  4. In setting papers on mathematics, drawing or trade, problems see that the data method and solution are reasonable.
  5. See that the average student is able to answer the questions in the time allowed.
  6. Arrange easy questions first and difficult ones towards the end of the paper.
  7. A paper with large number of short questions is considered to be a better paper.
  8. In practical tests make an accurate estimate of the time likely to be needed by the leverage student to complete the test.


N.B.:- Answers should not be valued as a whole. A carefully framed scheme of marking is essential.

            While marking, confine your attention to the work in front of you;don’t be moved by personal consideration. Be as objective as possible.


            The effectiveness of teaching should be checked periodically. After the completion of the prescribed syllabus, the trainees are presented for a Trade Test conducted by an authority higher than ourselves. Therefore, the trainees are to be so prepared, advised and sufficiently coached to meet the needs and difficulties of such tests and to overcome any examination fear while they accustom themselves for tests conducted under similar and strict final examination conditions.


            Teaching should be to:

  • Provide a basis for selection:
  • Provide an incentive:
  • Consolidate the teachings,
  • Assess the standards of instruction
  • And –to test the achievement of the examinee.


            To be effective the test must be-

  • Valid( must test subject matter as taught)
  • The test must be reliable (must measure accurately and consistently);
  • Objective (designed to cutout opinions and prejudices of examiner):
  • Discriminate (must differentiate between the worst and the best):
  • Must be comprehensive (must sample whole range of syllabus):
  • Easy to administrate and mark.


  1. Essay type: Advantages: All owes a freedom of expression

Disadvantages: Subjective :- i) Allows personal opinions of examiner to     influence the result.

  1. ii) Time take does not allow a wide coverage of syllabus.
  2. Multiple choice : Advantages: (a) Objective

       (b)Big coverage of syllabus.

Disadvantages: No freedom of expression of thought.

  1. Short answer type: Easy to mark allows some self – expression and   reasonable     coverage of syllabus.
  2. Other types:

(a) Maching type completion type etc.

(b) PRACTICAL TEST: Usually by a test job, which will permit a time assessment of abilities as a craftsman.

(c ) ORAL TEST: Allows freedom of verbal explanation (usually in an interval). Result is under the direct influence of opinions of the examiners.

(d ) Manipulative: Where speed and accuracy are to be assessed:

( eg.Typist , wireless operator, signaling etc.,)

The students must be sufficiently ladvised to do clear and neat work, plan the time given read questions carefully, answer compulsory questions first, keep to the point



            Sub:- Training – Assement of standards conducting of monthly test – Procedure – Instructions- Issued.


            It is needless to emphasize the importance of conducting monthly tests; these tests are to be conducted in a regular and systematic way. The procedure in this regard is to be followed as give below.

  1. Every month the practical test is to be conducted in the last three days of the month while the theoretical test is to be conducted in the first three working days of the next month.
  2. The results shall be lanlnounced and a copy of the results sheet, duly signed by the Principal be pasted on to the test results board in the section by sixth instant of every month positively.
  3. (a)The practical exercise for the test should be prepared for this purpose involving all the operations and skills acquired to the limit and grade as per the scheduled stage of the training.

(b)The availability of the material required in the stores shall have to be ascertained at first and necessary note to be submitted to the Principal, sufficiently earlier to enable procure the same in time.

(c ) The sketch is to be submitted to the Group Instructor who will scrutinize and resubmit the same to the Principal for his approval.


Individual sketches may be supplied as per the convenience. However a neat

Sketch will be drawn on a black board and placed in a conspicuous position in the section.

The jobs are to be evaluated carefully on the basis as is done in the final test.

The Group Instructor will pick up at least two models at random and value the same  

Himself. He shall compare the evaluation with that of the Instructor or the Examiner stipulated for this purpose to know that the job has been assessed more or less equally and alike.

It is better the Group Instructor checks the two models. Which scored the highest and lowest marks.

            The theoretical test will be a written test.

            The questions set will be from the portion taught during the particular month and however may include one or two questions considered important from and among the previous portion or the test papers. In the case of sections having more than one unit, the group instructor may arrange to obtain the test papers set by the Instructor other than the one dealing the batch.

            The test papers will be submitted inthefor proper scrutiny to the Group Instructor who in turn resubmits the same to the Principal for approval.

            The Principal will obtain typed or cyclostyled copied of the test papers if there is sufficient time. Otherwise either the questions will be written on black board or dictated.

            The paper for writing the answers and blank result sheets may be obtained from the Group Instructor who will receive the supply on proper indent from the stores.


            The standards of training are to be improved and brought up to the required level. It is painful to mention that it is high time for us all to give a series thought to this issue and make every effort and strain every nerve to produce good craftsman. It will be pleasure for us all to hear that the trainees from the I.T.Is are really fit to be encouraged from the Industrialists. We must work hard to create spontaneous will and high impression on the minds of the employers and industrialists that they extend their hearty cooperation and unhesitatingly to provide jobs or training facilities in their establishment to our trainees. Therefore, it must be our aim to produce a very good craftsman of required standards and win the appreciation of all employees and industrialists.

            I feel that the following are some of the methods by which we may achieve our aim.

  1. Monthly meetings.
  2. Group discussions.
  3. UN quenching thirst to learn more knowledge and acquire more skill to be efficient for imparting good quality of instruction.
  4. Series of lectures.

            It has been instructed to conduct monthly meetings by our superior authorities. These meetings help a great lot when conducted properly and suitable topics discussed. Suitable topics.

  1. The requirement and availability of materials.
  2. The schedules of training ie. Division of syllabus month-wise and week-wise.
  3. Allotment of work to every trainee.
  4. Maintenance of tools and machinery.
  5. Absenteeism on the part of the trainees and effective measures to check up.
  6. Revised technique to explain a particular subject.
  7. Reconciling conflicting views and periodical review of operations and progress of training and
  8. Any such other important topics which are felt to be bottlenecks in the process of straining or some of the topics to be included in the agenda for discussions in the meeting.

The following is the procedure suggested, for conducting such meetings and discussions.

            The Group Instructor or the Groupleader or the senior member of staff gives the background and introduction as planned and also stimulates and guides. He gives his expression and thought. The purpose of the meeting should be made clear in advance to each of the members of the staff.



The Group Instructor or the leader prepares an agendas ie. A list of main points for discussion and makes notes also or such points. This agenda should be circulated amongst all the members of staff allowing an opportunity for any addition of points to the agenda drawn. Then fix up a date, time and venue (location).   Afterwards such agenda should be submitted to the Head of the Institution for his information, suggestions and approval.


            We have many types of individuals in the capacity of Instructors, the talkative and the silent or passive. The talkative members try to monopolies the entire discussion.

            The Group Instructor shall tactfully manage to check the monopolizing tendency of the talkative and encourage the silent member to actively participate in the discussions. Also he sets up a time limit for discussion. Discussion and shall so manage that no individual differences shall be brought into the discussion.

            At the end of the discussion the decisions arrived at or the minutes of such meeting shall be recorded. The group instructor or the leader has to summarize the points discussed and dictate the main decision or the minutes of the meeting.


            Successful meetings depend largely upon the attitude and participation of every member.

            Therefore you should:-

  1. Realise the meeting belongs to you.
  2. Recognize the success of the meeting rests partly with you.
  3. Enter into discussion enthusiastically.
  4. Give a free vent of your experience.
  5. Restrict your discussion to the problem.
  6. Say what you think.
  7. Make your remarks impersonal and free from prejudice.
  8. Be a good listener to the good discussion.
  9. Be patient and try to appreciate the other members point of view.
  10. Avoid monopolizing the discussion.
  11. Assist in reaching conclusions.
  12. Be a good sport when the discussion goes against you.
  13. Be prompt and regular in attendance.

            When we, the members of staff at I.T.Is follow the above in conducting our meetings and discussions, there is no doubt that our effort will certainly yield fruitful results.


            The Group Instructor basing on his knowledge and experience and in consultation with and reference to books, periodicals, pamphlets etc. shall try to deliver lessons or arrange demonstrations of important subjects introducing modern methods of technique now and then. He can as well encourage any suitable member of the staff to assist him in this regard. These lessons help a great lot for the improvement of the individuals and also collectively of the organization. It also helps promotion of interest for reference to books to be in touch with current improvements in his trade.


            The Instructor is the pillar for training. He is responsible to carve out a good tradesman out of the candidates entrusted to his care. One should realize that the knowledge satisfied one as a student is not sufficient as a teacher. After one has got a he has reached the goal and noting to learn more. But we are living in a fast changing would. Progress is made at a very rapid rate. Even methods of teaching are being revised as a result of experience. New literature is being written. New materials are discovered. New methods of operations are developed. Knowledge is unlimited. Therefore keep alive to these changes by keeping in close contact with the developments. Failure to keep upto-date may not place you very successfully. Therefore quench not your thirst for knowledge. By equipping yourself with abundant and fresh knowledge and keeping in contact with all modern developments one will be able to impart training not only to our satisfaction but to that extent of rendering ourselves eligible for rich award of appreciation.



            Instructor and trainee – their relations.

My Dear Instructor,

            You are judged and your efficiency observed from the following view points.

  1. Ability to impart knowledge,
  2. Ability to control a class; and
  3. Accessibility to students and his general relationship with them.
  4. General behavior

            You may be very good in your trade but you will not be necessarily a good teacher. To be an effective teacher, you must learn the trade and the art of teaching. You must have intimate knowledge of the job in which you give instruction. You must have a keen interest to acquire a greater skill day by day and to impart the same to your trainees. Go to your class well prepared. Prepare your lesson plan either for a class room lesson or one for demonstration. Take the object of your lesson clear and definite – then the students become prepared for it mentally. Introduce the subject matter in an interesting manner (Refer the imparting of theoretical/practical instructions.) Motivate the students. Explain new words and terms. Now treat your subject matter step by step according your plan you have prepared. Use instructional aides effectively.   See that all trainees participate in the lesson.   Check frequently for understanding of things taught. Use good questioning technique. It is advised that you should have a set of good questions prepared well in advance with you. For we will not be able to frame agood question then and there.Summarise the lesson. Write down the main points on the black board and build up the summary gradually. Remember consolidation or final revisionis the top stone of the lesson. This can be done in very many ways Questioning, assigning of exercises, discussion etc, Give evidence that you know the subject and maintain good poise. Make effort to maintain the interest of the class throughout.




            Prepare a lesson plan. Arrange the group of trainees properly . Keep ready all required materials, tools and equipment and arrange them neatly. Stateobjectively of the demonstration.Introduce and andtreat the subject stapes by stapes. Explanation, demonstration, imitation and repetition. Describe or explain a thing- demonstrate correct operation- let them do ie. Imitate you in adopting correct procedure. Then provide opportunity for repetition. A greater percentage of learning is only by practice. Summariesthe demonstration. Compare the finished work of your students with your own model, pint out their mistakes in a gentle manner and also suggest how to avoid, please be careful and tactful in pointing out their defects. Encourage first what is that done best and they comment what is done badly.


            In this connection it is advised that it is essential that you, the Instructor must prepare each exercise with yourself, the Instructor must prepare each exercise with your own hands well in advance before the same is assigned to the trainee. You will be in a position to know all openntions. Their sequence any difficulties involved and the time actually required for a trainee to complete the job and various other factors that may have to be explained to the trainee. (Refer also for information for successful job demonstration)


            Each Instructor is expected to know every trainee of his class individually. But also it is desirable the instructor to know them as an entire class. In a small group there is a certain degree of common opinions or ideas. The individuals develop a group spirit. Hence, the Instructor should know something of the working of the minds of his trainees. The Instructor should keep strict discipline in the class.  Your position in the class is one that of a leader or a captain of a team, by command respect from your trainees. But respect cannot be demanded. Keep them on your toes, by creating a firm impression on the regarding your knowledge experience and personality.   Be neat and clean in your personal appearance. Show initiative and enthusiasm. Have a helpful attitude towards students. Controll your class by your eyes and tongue. Keep the eyes alert and tongue under your control. Never use slang or profane or harsh language.   Immediately check when you find a trainee to misbehave. But make sure beforehand the reason for such behavior and that you are not partly responsible. Be systematic and steady in whatever you do. Do not be too stiff but see that reasonable freedom is allowed. Always be just and fair to them. No hard and fast rules can be laid down about your treatment of your students. One thing which is most important – is the wrong notion that the trainee must be somehow kept busy. It is not so. You have a definite aim for teaching and similarly the trainee for learning. Make the objective clear to the class.   Let them not feel that trainings is a task only. There should be a feeling among students that whatever they are learning is a means of achieving their objective   make sure that the students do not feel boredom or any inconvenience due to uncomfortable seats, inadequate lighting and ventilation.


 3.Accessibility to students and his general relationship with them:-

            Your profession is teaching. Your position in your class is that of a leader of a group of enthusiastic youths. Their tender minds are to be trained, treated, blended and developed in aright way. To have an effective achievement of your aim, strict discipline shall have to be enforced. – Personal and official you must maintain good poise and bearing. Avoid slang and profane language. Have patience. Be firm but fair. Have a sympathetically understanding of the difficulties of the trainees. But do not appear lenient. While be sociable and move freely always maintain your position and dignity – distinguish yourself in your action and talk. Create confidence in the trainee that you are everything for him. Maintain good interest among the trainees. Reward is the better method. But it should be only as an appreciation and not a briary.   Purpose of punishment should be positive but not negative. Praise good work first and then remark on the bad work. Blaming does not mean ridicule or rebury. When they come to you for any explanation of subject matter or for clearing doubts do not act as a ready reference. Stimulate thinking encourage and guide to solve their own problems. Don’t give mere answer but extract the answer from them. Do not be irritable. Enquire after his health now and then, have patient hearing to any of his problems. Try to console him and if possible him to be free from his difficulties.



            It is essential that character and personality are both essential to an Instructor.

Aim at high ideals and ambitions and live up to them.

Put up a high standard of work and conduct.

Be honest.

Be sincere.

Be faithful.

Be amicable.

Be resourceful.

Develop good integrity.

Have desirable tact and try not to be discourteous.

Discharge with the instructions give to you in strict adherence.

Readily accept any responsibility, when entrusted.

Comply with the instructions given to you in strict adherence.

Come forward willfully when there is any work that can be done by you.

Be keen work

Be industrious.

Be a good Instructor.

Be a good subordinate.

Be truthfully and dutiful.

Be a good component of the Organization.

Be a good citizen and be a good National.

Be an adoring son of Bharathamatha.

Be in everything good.



                        You have a wide range of responsibility to shoulder in the satisfactory discharge of duties as a link between the administrative machinery and the training wing (2) As a leader of group of instructors and as an experienced technicians with superior knowledge.

            Your efforts should be towards planning organizing and directing all those under your control to get things done willingly and maintain the efficiency of the organization.

            Your position is that of a captain in sports. Your rank is above those who are under your charge. Hence your primary function is to lead, guide and maintain discipline.

No Organization can be happy if discipline is lacking. Enforce discipline by imposition. Discipline must be made to understand and observed to make punishment unnecessary.

            A Group Instructor shall try and understand the psychology of his assistants, and hence in case of any issue of a problem he can feel the minds of the Instructors and their view point. He also knows the view point of the Head of the Institution. In such cases, the Training Officers shall have to carry out the view point of the Head of the Institutioneven though his own may be different regarding that particular problem. The Group Instructor may convey his opinion or suggestion to the Head of the Institution in confidence but should not make any statement to his subordinates with a view to gain cheap popularity. A dutiful Group Instructor is more respected than a popular one. Try to build up good will, on the basis of mutual fairness i.e. on the part of yourself as the group instructor and the instructors as your subordinates. If you as a Group Instructor cannot command respect or if you were to lose your prestige it would be difficult to get best results.

            You as leader of a group of Instructors is responsible for the achievement of a group objective. Please remember that example is better than precept. Please develop:


            (b)Good character and morale:

            (c )Appreciable proficiency in your job.

            (d)Sound judgment.


            (f)Tolerable temperament.

No less task is before you are responsible for training Craftsmen you are judge by the results obtained in quality and quantity. You must try and develop team spirit and encourage team work. Put right man on the right job. Consider spiel ability and physical characteristic while allotting work. Maintain uniform discipline. Set example. Treat all alike. Praise good work.

            Remember, co-operation is most essential. Maintain vertical as well as horizontal co-operation. The latter is difficult. Delayed work schedule whiling away of time on the indications of poor co-operation.


            Please realize that you have to develop a high order of morale on your part and maintain amongst your group also. Morale enables a person to rise to the occasion and face the situation boldly. Morale may be said as the sum total of all the positive qualities of an individual or a group. (Goodwill, Sympathy and understanding, Gentility and Co-cooperativeness).

            Morale helps to manage or control your group of instructors without resorting to punishment, to maintain better co-operation and teamwork and to maintain pleasant atmosphere in your shops.

            My dear Group Instructor, be advised that you can only control your subordinates when your are thorough with your know ledge. You must have perfect knowledge and a high order of skill in the operations of at least of your trade. Always have an observing eye and keenness to learn more and more and acquire greater and greater skill. Develop that quality of sharpness to readily point out any incorrect procedure of operations or handing of tools and machinery. “Issue on the spot instruction and insist their implementation.

            Prepare and deliver lessons for the improvement of maintenance fo tools and machinery, to impart further detailed knowledge regarding any particular aspect or instructing corrective measures. Encourage an useful discussion specifically mentioning a topic. This effort of yours will certainly result in the improvement of proficiency of the group of instructors under your charge and thus help to impart a good instruction.

                      Consolidating all that is expected of you to improve standard of training be advised as follows:-

(a)Maintain a high order of discipline.

(b)Be punctual.

(c ) Issue definite and clear instructions:

(d)Often go round the shops observe trainees at work put questions on the workshop floor assist the instructor tactfully while at demonstration or conducting a practical class.

(e )See that all tools and machinery are properly maintained maintain repair schedule and insist on preventive maintenance.

(f )Conduct internal inspections as per instructions give.

(g)Arrange and conduct periodical tests and assess the standard of atrainee in an effective manner,

(h)Check obsentism and malingering tendency on the part of the trainees. Aim at producing best trainees for your Institute and to render your Institution eligible for the award of appreciation and rolling shields.


            Please develop the following qualities:-

Be forceful but yet kind.

Keep all promises

Avoid short judgment.

Maintain the confidence of all instructors under your charge.

Avoid excessive lenience or harshness.

Do not be carried away by all talks.

Do not be victim of tale carriers.

Be balanced in your talk and walk.

Praise good work appreciate industrious attitude but be tactful while blaming. Never cherish favoritism.




  1. Training of class of trainees in Theory and practical according to the prescribed syllabus and graded exercises (The Instructor will prepare his lessons for each lecture and use correct technique of teaching)
  2. The maintenance of attendance Register consumable and Raw Material register, M.P.Register and tools register in accordance with the instructions issued.

(b)His attention is drawn to the instructions issued regarding care and maintenance of tools and equipments and shall record the “Certificates” there in required in proforma given every week in a register and obtain the initials of the Group Instructor concerned.

  1. Proper and regular filling up of sectional records.
  2. The checking and correcting of Theory note books, Log books Practical and other seasonal


5.Preparing Charts, Drawing and other visual aids for the section in consultation with the

       Group Instructor and approval.

   6.Indenting of materials for the section well in advance and proper safe custody of the   indent book.

   7.He shall submit the leave applications of trainees to Group Instructor after his full scrutiny

With his endorsement.

   8.He shall submit the weekly programmer as per the instructions issued in this regard.

   9.He shall conduct monthly test in consultation with the group instructor as per the standing instructions issued in this regard.

   10.He shall prepare and submit estimates f raw and consumable materials required through the group instructor as per the circular memo of instructions issued in this regard.

   11.Strict discipline, promoting of desirable relationship among the trainees themselves and of himself with the trainees.

  1. He should attend 10minutes earlier and arrange for his work and commence the same exactly by the stipulated start of time.

He shall strictly comply with and execute the instruction that is issued from time to time by his superiors.










1.The Institute works in two shifts as follows:-

6-00A.M to 1.30P.M.             1.Shift

           11-00A.M. to 7-00P.M               2.Shift

2.As per the suggestions approved in the staff meeting trainees will be give an interval of fifteen minutes (from 10-00 A.M. to 10 – 15 A.M.) for tea etc. (3-00 P.M to 3-15 P.M)

  1. A bell will be given five minutes earlier to the commencement of sessions (Morning and afternoon) to indicate “First Bell ‘ Second Bell: long and one stroke, long and 2 strokes. Similarly bell will be given five minutes earlier to indicate ‘Stop work’ collect and clean all tools and Machinery.

4.Training officer should obtain the attendance register of trainees from various sections by6-10A.M. and 11-00A.M positively and comply strictly with this instruction.

5.The Instructional staff shall insist on punctuality and proper time keeping. They shall set an example in this respect.

6.The Instructional staff shall be present in their respective sections sufficiently before time, so that every things can be kept ready for the day’s work and immediate distribution.

7.Trainees shall not be allowed to stop work before the warning signal.

8.Trainees shall not be allowed to loiter about aimlessly.

9.Before class is dismissed for the morning or evening see that the following rules are observed by the training officer.

When the warning bell goes, stop work immediately and put all tools in their proper

            Placarded after cleaning them.

            2.Store all materials and unfinished articles in the proper place.

            3.Remove everything excepting permanent fixtures or machines from benches and

               Brush them clean.

            4.Clean and polish all metal parts of machines surface plates etc.

            5.Report any broken or defective tool, such as broken drill or tap or damaged hammer,           

               Chisel drill etc.

            6.See that the kit boxes are properly locked.

            7.Plasce stools in proper places and benches in line.

            8.See that all scrap pieces are in the bin box and not on the floor.

            9.Make sure that everything is keptsafe & clear before they leave.

            10.All trainees and members of staff shall stand in line sing National Anthem and

                 Disburse for the day.

            Strict compliance of these instructions is expected. Non observance of these instructions shall be deemed as negligence of duty.



Office Order No.7/66

Industrial Training Institute: Tirupati

Sub:-SUBMISSION OF WEEKLY PROGRAMMES, etc., Instructions issued.


           The Instructional Staff are requested to keep the following point in view while drawing up and the supervisory staff to scrutinize while submitting his weekly programmers respectively.

1.They should satisfy that the drawn up programme is according to the division of syllabus and is in line with the time schedule.

2.that the time allotted (in hours) in shown for each exercise and progress is balanced (Pragramme should be specifically drawn for all the available practical and theoretical hours during the week.

3.That the theoretical instruction is detailed specifically for each all the classes available during the week and for that available duration for each class.

4.That the exercises are staggered, suitably in all cases where it is not possible to engage every trainee on a particular exercise or machine in this connection, the Training Officers are personally instructed also to see.

  1. That the lesson plans are invariably presented along with the weekly programmes. This is most essential. The Supervisory Instructors should insist on aproper and previously scrutinized lesson plans at the time of instructors taking up a theory class.
  2. The supervisory Instructor would suggest whether a class room lesson is suitable or demonstration class will be beneficial. The Training Officers shall also satisfy themselves that the previous week’s programmers has been completed, and if not shall offer their remarks with sufficient reasons in the weekly programmers.












                                    Office of the Principal,

Industrial Trg. Institute, Tirupati

Office Order No.9/66                                                                                                Dt.——————2015

            Sub: FIXATION OF TIME IN HOURS FOR EACH GRADED EXERCISE – Instructions Issued.



            It is needless to emphasize that while required skill should be acquired by each trainee the importance of time factor should not miss the attention of all responsible for training. Time should be allotted to each graded exercise. This is to be done very carefully and the time allotted should be based on experience, observation and personal estimation, taking into consideation the stage of training period, availability of tools and equipment and other factors that may present on the shop floor.

            It is suggested that time to be allotted for a particular graded excise may be arrived as follows:-

            If an Instructor can finish a job in 8 hours allot, 10 hours (1st month 9th) upto 9 months and then onwards add 90 minutes or 60 minutes and allot 91/2 hours or 9 hours.

            Therefore the Supervisory and Instructional Staff are requested give their immediate attention and allot timings for each graded exercise, each by him and then sit to gather,consult each other and fix the time required in conference method by mutual agreement and on merits and demerits. The Training Officers are requested to give this personal attention to this assessment of time and the assignment of this piece of work. This matter may be discussed in the weekly meetings.




Office Order No.3/66                                                           `                                   Office of the Principal

                                                                                    Industrial Trg. Institute Chittoor



1.All the particulars regarding the trainee’s required should be filled up (Front Page) neatly.

2.Attendance and other particulars (Front Page) shall be filled up on the last working day of every month.

3.To represent the proficiency obtained as A.B. & C. the marks obtained by the trainees during the months in the tests conducted and for the exercises competed should also be totaled and their average calculated. Accordingly A.B. or C is to be represented.

4.the conduct should be marked as per the actual behavilours of the trainee and on the basis of observation by the concerned member of staff or based on any reports.

A trainee may be good in behaviors conduct and may not secure appreciable marks: iit shall be unfair to mark his conduct as ‘F’ instead of a G. Some Instructors start to mark ‘B’ and then gradually show improvement by marking ‘F’ ‘G’ etc., we do not want to entertain any body of unsatisfactory behavior or conduct, while he may try to advise one who is not bad.

5.An exercise completed by a trainee, should be tested, valued and then the proficiency to be assessed until then the progress card should not be filled up, at random, having a sweeping over idea of the trainee. This d will not only boost the enthusiasm of the trainee, but also will encourage him to produce, step by step good better, best and A job. Thus a healthy sign of competitive spirit is promoted. Not only that this will eliminate any idea observed whether a trainee requires improvement in accuracy Method of work or to gain line and in which operation a trainee is weak.

6.Dates of commencement and finish should be shown of an exercise clearly.

7.Marks obtained at the aptitude and monthly tests should be shown in REDINK.

8.Marks from the job evaluation sheet, to be entered in Log Book and then to be entered in progress card. All the three entries shall coincide.

9.It is wrong to fill up marks for a week end, but marks should be entered for every exercise.

10.Marks for allied trades should be marked in the right space allotted for them.

11.While filling up, checking up for (1) the continuity of dates (2) the order in which exercises have been actually done(3) to ensure that the trainee was present on the dates shown and no date, that has been a holiday was been noted.

12.Maintain the same mealy in a wrapper keep it in proper safe custody, and please note, it is an important document.








Office Order No.                                                                                Office of the Principal,

                                                                                                Industrial Trg. Institute, Tirupati


1.Each indent from should have serial No. of the book and the indent leaf.

2.the date on which materials are indented shoud be clearly noted.

3.The trade, batch, senior/Junior should be clearly noted.

4.Exercise no. or Numbers and the number of trainees for which material is indented should be shown.

5.If for any other purpose other than for use towards regular training, the definite purpose should be clearly mentioned.

6.The description of the item should be clearly noted, and shall be the same as noted in the stock ledgers.

7.The quantity should be indented in the same units as power entries in the stock ledger (Meters/Yards,Lus/Kgs, sheet/Weight, Ting/Kgs, specifically.

8.(a) Raw materials:Iron Bar/Flat, Angle Iron, Sheet Etc., should be based on the dimensioned sketches of the graded exercises.

   (b) Availabillity of materials and quantity should be enquired first in the stores.

   (c )The quantity to be indented in respect of general consumables like hacksaw blades,cotton waster, Kerosene Oil Lubricating Oil, Washing Soda, Soap, paints,etc., should be first consulted with the Group Instructor and then to be filled in.

   (d)The materials shall be drawn exercise –war in the case of productive exercises and not consolidated. Even they may contain the same size of material on the same material/materials.

9.The indent from should be ruled neatly and not crowded.

10.The entries should be written neatly, legibly and carefully in coving pencil. Or of not in Lead Pencil.

11.Shall be signed by the Instructor and Group Instructor and then be submitted to the principal.

12.If the space for sage custody permits the materials may be drawn for two weeks a nd if otherwise only for one week.

13.The Indent Book shall be in the safe custody of the respective Instructor.

14.The materials indented must be carried on to the consumable registers and M.P.Registers, duly obtained with cost noted against each by the Store-Keeper.

15.The Indent Books shall be submitted well inadvance i.e. on every Friday and Saturday, through the Group Instructor to the Principal.












Office Order No.6/66                                                            Office of the Principal

                                                                                 Industrial Trg.Institute,Chittoor,



            Sub: PROPER FILLING UP OF JOB EVALUATION SHEET. Instructions Issued.

            It has been observed that the job Evaluation sheets are not indicating all the details to facilitate check up. Hence the following instructions are requested to be strictly observed and put into action.

1.Exercise No. and aim should be clearly written is letters.

2.At the right hand side on the top, date of commencement and date of finish should be noted.

3.Time allotted should be noted.

4.time take in hours in respect of each trainees should be indicated.

5.Each Major item (Accuracy, Method of work etc) should be split up. The marks obtained under each item should be totaled. Letter a,b,c, etc., should be shown in a sketch and represented.

6.The grand total should be put in red ink or color ink.

7.Should be initialed by the Instructor under date.

8.Should be neatly maintained and presented.

9.Marks for time taken should be awarded not a transom or whimsical fancy, but only on a fixed basis. There should be definite proportion and ration in respect of time allotted, time taken maximum for time and marks awarded.


Office of the Principal,

Industrial Trg. Institute, Bobbili,

Office Order No.10/66                                                                                              Dd.14/12/66.



            Every technician is aware of the importance of paying primary attention to the care and maintenance of tools and machinery. Good results are obtained with properly maintained machines and tools.

            Work is worship respect your tools. Lest you may loose yours. Cleanliness is next to Godliness.

            Hence the following instructions are issued with a request to strictly adhere to the same with a high sense of duty and to develop a high order of contentiousness in the discharge of prescribed duties.

1.The machines and hand tools should be kept in perfect working order and scrupulously clean. 2.No trace of rust is to be allowed on any machine or tools.   All parts should be thoroughly cleaned and idled. The supervisory staff should effectively check and try to inculcate this good and essential habit among the staff and trainees.

3.Each Instructor shall get himself acquainted with every piece of equipment in his charge regarding, function of each part, function and necessary if part or assembly, if a special design designed by that particular manufacturer, to facilitate operation of the machine or device or an assembly with proper understanding.


5.Set/Set s of tools supplied along with a particular machine should be carefully preserved. Otherwise much difficultly is to be experienced in the absence of a specific required tools.

6.In case any defect is noticed in any part of parts of machine the Instructor should immediately bring the same to the notice of the supervisory instructor and then only under his instructions and with his express permission any repairs are to be attended to if possible and of minor nature. Otherwise it should be brought to the notice of the Foreman or a replacement and or any suitable attention required in consultation with the principal.

b)The repairs attended to and defects noticed should be recorded. This register shall be with

Group Instructor and maintained.

7.Certificates should be recorded every week. End in a notebook by the concerned instructor, regarding the tools and plant in his charge as follows:

a)Certified that all machinery in my charge is in perfect working condition.

b)Certified that the machines are maintained properly.

TOOLS:-The Instructional Staff are requested to insist on correct methods of manipulation, use of correct size of and specific tool to prevent damage to fixtures, fasteners and other accessories.

2.Each and every tool should receive the above attention with respect to every point of care and maintenance pertaining to a particular tools.

3.The Instructional staff shall insist on observing of safety pre causations. Safety to the tools/machine and safety to operator.

4.Tools shall be neatly arranged in kit boxes or cup-boards and shall not be thrown indiscriminately.

            The concerned are requested to note these instructions carefully and further, that any slackness, deviation or indifferent noticed in strict follow up and adherence of the same shall be viewed seriously.



            The Training Officers and Instructional Staff are requested to follow the instructions herein below given and to prepare training grant estimates pertaining to every quarter.

1.The requirement of materials should be worked out basing on the list of graded exercises completed with dimensioned sketches.

2.Schedules of quantity for each Graded Exercise should be shown.

3.Estimated quantity of each material for each trainee and for each unit of a class should be shown.

4.Raw materials and consumables under each graded exercises should be shown separately.

5.General consumables should be should be shown separately.

6.Schedule of rates for the various items should be taken, based on the lecal current rates of the market, if not available, on the previous rates at which they were purchased.

7.The estimate shall include:-

1)The total cost based on the above date for the existing strength under each trade must be worked out.

2)And basing on the above, the total cost for the total requirement of the Institute should be worked out.

3)A certain Lump sum (Miscellaneous) Must be provided for minor and unforeseen items for each trade.

4)Fluctuation of prices should be provided for at 10% of the final cost.

5)Detailed estimates with probable estimated cost should also be furnished separately for replacement of hand tools, and similarly for the equipment(replacement f parts) repairs etc. with margin for unforeseen damages.

Estimates should be submitted as per the following programme:

1st Quarter: April, May and June                              —— Before 1st March

2nd Quarter: July, August & September                    ——     “       1st June

3rd Quarter: October, November & December         ——              1st September   

4th Quarter: January, February &March                  ——             1st December


S.No.   Particulars      Qty.Per           Quty.Perunit  Qty.Per actual            Rate            Amount

            Of materialstrainee       class                  Strength

  • (2)                             (3)                          (4)                    (5)                       (6)                (7)

Consolidated Abstract of Requirements                                                                                Total requirements

Seniors                                 Juniors                                                                                                                                                 

  • (2)                                                                                                                                   Col 1 + col.2

Office order No.3/1966

                The following are the duties assigned to the Training Officers at Industrial Training Institute, Bobbili. The Training Officers are requested to strictly adhere to the duties prescribed, which come into force with immediate effect.


  • The Training Officers should assist the Principal in the general supervision of the Training Programmed besides they will be responsible for the following duties.

(i)Provide conditions in which trainees are able to work with efficiency.

(ii)Avoid wasteful practice.

(iii)Build-up proper work habits.

(iv)Provide safety precautions in each section.

2)To check trainees wearing approved uniforms.

3)He should inculcate in the trainees:

(i)Sense of discipline.



(iv)observance of safety precautions .

(v)Care and proper maintenance of tools.

4.He should strictly adhere to the rules and regularities and assist the principal on the training side.



                To supervise and arrange for the cleanliness of buildings and its surroundings, shop premises, class rooms, proper sanitation, lighting and ventilation.


                To formulate time table for the conduct of:-

i)Theoretical, practical and allied trade classes in consultation with the principal.

ii)To get graded exercises with dimensioned sketches, details of operation etc., prepared with the help of the instructional staff trade-wise as per prescribed syllabus.

iii)To get the notes of lesions, lesson plans, demonstration lesson plans etc., prepared by the concerned instructors.

iv)To ensure proper preparation by the concerned staff before a theory or practical class is taken by planning work in advance with demonstrations and visual aids.

v)To get a schedule of articles to be manufactured, drawn out, during the period of proficiency stage of atrainee, as laid down in the prescribed syllabus.

vi)To check proper maintenance of progress cards and log books for every trainee to ensure that the graded exercises are completed as per schedule.

vii)To make arrangements for periodical test (Monthly and slip tests) and mind-term examinations for means to make up deficiency.

viii)To check whether all the trainees of various sections in his charge are maintaining note books, drawing books, etc., as prescribed and the instructional staff are properly checking the note books by correcting spelling mistakes, sketches and incorrect textual matter etc. and initialing them.

ix)To prepare a programme for correcting note books and other records of trainees by the concerned instructors and by themselves.

x)To ensure proper evaluation of jobs completed by the trainees and maintenance of marks sheets.

(A) The Training Officers shall select any two jobs at random and value them by their own judgment and to see whether the evaluation by the instructor is reasonable.

xi)To device ways and means to improve the attendance of trainees (Unauthorized absentees) and to see trainees to be punctual by issuing warnings in consultation with the principal.

xii)To make arrangements for study tours and visits to Industrial concerns.

xiv)To draw out a programme for preparing visual aids, tool boxes illustration charts and section models.

xv)Should plan job works and analyze them in accordance with the skill and knowledge which is expected of a trainee at that particular stage of training period.


i)To ensure proper usage of the materials drawn without waste and pilferage.

ii)To ensure economic and effective use of equipment tools and materials.

iii)To keep equipment, tools and materials in good condition.

iv)To check tools periodically for their condition and proper storage. Tools damaged etc., should be brought to the notice of the principal for condemnation or otherwise every month.

v)To ensure proper arrangements for storing hand tools, accessories and materials in sections.

vi)To maintain registers of manufactured articles.

vii)To instruct and see maintained registers properly accordingly for the consumable materials like H.S.S.Hacksaw blades, Electrodes, Electric bulbs, Winding Wires, Wiring Wires and cables, Electrical Accessories and Machine Saw Blades etc.,

viii)To maintain aregister recording such items of equipment which are found short, affecting the training and report to principal.


1.To arrange weekly/Fortnightly/meetings with the instructional staff for reviewing the weekly/Fortnightly work and to plan out for the coming week.

a)The minutes of such meetings should be recorded in a register for perusal by inspecting officers.

2.To conduct classes for the trainees on general subjects like—

                a)Maintenance of hand tools, machine tools and their manipulation.

                b)Workshop discipline.

                c)Safety Precautions.

3.To conduct classes periodically for Instructors.

4.Thetraining officers should often visit the shops, issue “on the spot-instructions” wherever necessary, put questions to trainees while at work, without disturbing or dislocating the work. They shall also maintain a diary/log book, where in it will be indicated how the “Day, Time” is spent.

5.TheTraining Officers shall conduct internal inspections of the sections in their charge and spend not less than 21/2 hours in each section or such inspections and recor5d their observations in the following proforma.

Section Date      Name of the      Defects                                Rectification       Action   Date on                    Remarks

                                Instructor            noticed                 Suggested           taken   which


     1        2               3                         4                                 5                   6             7                              8


To                                                                                                                                                                Principal.

The Training Officers,

I and II for strict compliance.


BY Sri.P.Subbarao,Principal.

Complied by

G.NAGESH D.C.E.,B.Tech (civil)., PGDCA.,